Guided Tissue Regeneration
Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is the use of biological material and/or a barrier membrane to direct the growth of new bone in defects around teeth.
The build up of plaque on a tooth’s surface triggers your body’s immune system. In defense, your immune system attacks the bacteria and resorbs the surrounding bone. This bone loss can worsen over time and can be asymptomatic. Ultimately, the bone loss results in a pocket or infrabony defect around the tooth, thus compromising that tooth.
This first step in GTR is to remove the periodontal disease by thoroughly cleaning the tooth surface and surrounding defect. Next, bone grafting material is placed into the defect to help maintain space and act as a scaffold for bone cells. Finally, a barrier membrane is placed under the gums and over the bone to prevent the fast-growing soft tissue cells from migrating into the newly placed bone grafting material. The slower moving bone cells will then have time to permeate through the bone grafting material and create new bone in the defect.
GTR is only successful in a specific type of defect and cannot be used to re grow generalized horizontal bone.